In almost every heated debate, one side or the other plays the “Hitler card”, that is, criticises their opponent’s position or the opponents themselves by associating them in some way with Adolf Hitler or the Nazis.
Drawing a conclusion from correlations observed in a given sample, but only after the sample has already been drawn, and without declaring in advance what correlations the experimenter was expecting to find.
A logical fallacy is a statement that seems to be true until you apply the rules of logic. Then, you realise that it’s not. Logical fallacies can often be used to mislead people – to trick them into believing something they otherwise wouldn’t.